Introduction To German Tax Law
German tax law is a complex and extensive area of law that encompasses the legal provisions and regulations relating to taxes in Germany. It regulates the collection, administration and control of taxes at different levels, both for individuals and companies. Tax law is of great importance, as it enables the financial foundations of the German state and contributes significantly to the financing of the polity.
German tax law includes various forms of taxes, such as income tax, sales tax, corporate income tax and trade tax. Each of these types of taxes has its own rules and regulations aimed at ensuring fair and adequate taxation.
The tax system in Germany is based on the principle of taxation according to ability to pay. This means that the amount of tax payments depends on the economic situation and income of the taxpayer. Different tax brackets, tax allowances and deductions are used in an attempt to ensure a fair distribution of the tax burden and to reduce tax burdens for certain groups of people.
Tax Classes And Their Meaning
Tax brackets and their meaning are an important part of German tax law. The German tax system distinguishes between different tax brackets to calculate the income tax for employees. Each employee is assigned to a specific tax bracket based on their marital status and other individual factors. There are a total of six tax classes in Germany, from class I to class VI.
Tax class I applies to singles or married persons where only one spouse is employed. This tax bracket has the highest tax rate and is applied to employees who have neither children nor are single parents. Tax class II, on the other hand, is intended for single parents who receive child benefit or a relief amount. This tax class usually has a lower tax rate than Class I.
Tax classes III and V are often chosen by married couples. Tax class III applies to the spouse with the higher income, while tax class V applies to the spouse with the lower income. This combination often allows married couples to take advantage of tax benefits and reduce their overall tax burden. If these tax classes are chosen, taxation already takes place during the year.
- Married couples also have the option of choosing tax class IV together. Under this option, the income of both spouses is added together and taxed according to a special tax rate. Tax class IV is often chosen when both spouses have similar incomes. However, there are certain calculations that must be followed to ensure that the tax burden is fairly distributed to both spouses.
|Single parent employee
|Highest tax rate
|Lower tax rate
|Taxation of the spouse with higher income
|Taxation of the spouse with lower income
Choosing the right tax bracket can have a significant impact on the amount of your personal tax burden. It is important to consider individual circumstances and seek professional tax advice if necessary. Likewise, it is important to notify the tax office of changes in your personal life situation, such as marriage, divorce or the birth of children, in order to adjust your tax bracket and take advantage of possible benefits.
Tax allowances and deductions
German tax law is a complex subject that can confuse many people. In this blog post, we dedicate ourselves to the topic of “Tax allowances and deductions” and explain what benefits and opportunities there are to save taxes and optimize your own income.
A tax allowance is an amount that is deducted from taxable income and thus reduces the tax burden. In Germany, there are different types of tax allowances that can be used by every taxpayer. These include, for example, the basic tax-free allowance, the employee lump-sum allowance and the child tax-free allowance.
The basic tax-free amount is the amount up to which a taxpayer does not have to pay income tax. In 2021, the basic tax-free allowance in Germany will be 9,744 euros for single persons and 19,488 euros for married couples. This means that taxable income below this amount is tax-free.
- The employee lump sum is another tax allowance that applies to employees. It currently amounts to 1,000 euros per year and can be claimed by any employee. This amount is automatically taken into account when calculating income tax and thus reduces the tax burden.
Deductions are another way to save on taxes. These are expenses that can be claimed against tax and thus reduce taxable income. For example, costs for childcare, craftsman services, household-related services, further education costs and donations are deductible.
|2.000 Euro per year and child
|6.000 Euro per year
|20% of the costs, maximum 4,000 euros per year
|Further training costs
|depending on the type of training
|up to 20% of the total amount of income
It is important to keep all receipts and supporting documentation for these expenses, as the IRS may request these documents in the event of an audit. In addition, there are certain requirements to be observed for some deduction options, such as the recognition of childcare costs by the Youth Welfare Office.
Differences Between Income Tax And Sales Tax
German tax law is a complex and comprehensive subject. It governs the rules and regulations for taxation in Germany. There are several types of taxes levied in Germany, including income tax and sales tax. This blog post will take a closer look at the differences between these two types of taxes.
Income tax is a direct tax levied on the income of individuals. It is calculated and deducted based on a person’s income. German tax law stipulates that income is divided into different income classes, which have different tax rates. These income classes are also called tax classes. The higher a person’s income, the higher the tax rate they must pay.
In contrast, sales tax is an indirect tax levied on the sale of goods and services. It is passed on by the seller to the end user. Sales tax is calculated on the company’s sales and is usually levied as a percentage on the sales price. Companies are obliged to pay sales tax and regularly send advance sales tax returns to the tax office.
There are other differences between income tax and sales tax. An important difference is that the income tax is a progressive tax, while the sales tax is a regressive tax. This means that for income tax, the tax rate increases as income increases, while for sales tax, the tax rate remains constant, regardless of income.
- Another difference is that income tax is an annual tax calculated on income for the entire year, while sales tax is continuous due to regular business activity and must be paid monthly or quarterly.
|is calculated on the income of natural persons
|is calculated on the sale of goods and services
|continuously accruing tax
The Tax System For Companies In Germany
The tax system for companies in Germany
German tax law is one of the most complex and comprehensive in Europe. It regulates the taxation of companies and has a significant impact on their economic situation. Companies in Germany are required to pay various taxes, including sales tax, trade tax and corporate income tax.
Sales tax is a consumption tax levied on the sale of goods and services. In Germany, the general VAT rate is 19% and there is also a reduced rate of 7% for certain goods and services such as food, books and cultural events. Companies must collect sales tax on their sales and pay it to the tax office. At the same time, they can claim input tax deductions to offset the sales tax they paid on their purchases.
Trade tax is a municipal tax that companies must pay. It is calculated on the profit from commercial activity and the tax rate varies depending on the municipality. Business tax is one of the most important sources of revenue for municipalities and helps finance local infrastructure projects. Companies must submit their business tax return to the local tax office and pay the tax accordingly.
Corporate income tax:
Corporate income tax is a tax paid by corporations such as limited liability companies and stock corporations. The tax rate in Germany is 15% and increases to 25% for large companies with profits in excess of €1 million. Corporate income tax is calculated on the profit generated by the company and must be paid annually to the tax office. However, there are certain tax regulations and write-off opportunities that companies can take advantage of to reduce their tax burden.
|Sale of goods and services
|19% (general rate) / 7% (reduced rate)
|Profit from commercial activity
|varies depending on the municipality
|Corporate income tax
|15% (up to 1 million euros profit) / 25% (over 1 million euros profit)
The German tax system for companies is complex and requires a detailed knowledge of the tax regulations. It is advisable to consult a tax advisor or a tax firm in order to make the best use of the tax obligations and opportunities for the company and to avoid possible risks.
Tax Evasion And Its Consequences
Tax evasion is an offense that is prosecuted in many countries. German tax law also has clear rules and consequences for those who try to evade taxes. In this article we will take a closer look at the issue of tax evasion and the possible consequences.
Tax evasion in German tax law refers to the intentional concealment or falsification of information relevant to the calculation of tax liability. This can be done by not reporting income, making false statements, or using illegal methods to avoid taxes. The tax administration has taken various measures to counter this type of fraud.
One of the most important consequences of tax evasion is the imposition of penalties and fines. German tax law provides for high fines based on the amount evaded. In some cases, imprisonment may also be imposed. The exact amount of the penalty depends on various factors such as the extent of the evasion and the individual history of the offender.
|up to 1 million euro
|in case of serious cases and repeated evasion
- The penalties for tax evasion can be significant and should not be underestimated.
- In addition to penalties, interest and back payments may also be charged on the amount evaded.
- Tax evasion is not only a legal offense, but also a moral one.
Frequently asked questions
What is the German tax law?
German tax law comprises all laws and regulations governing the taxation of individuals and companies in Germany.
What are the different tax classes and their meaning?
Tax brackets in Germany are used to classify employees into different tax brackets. You determine the amount of deductions from gross wages.
What are the tax allowances and deductions?
Tax allowances and deductions allow taxpayers to deduct certain expenses from their taxable income to reduce their tax burden.
What are the differences between income tax and sales tax?
Income tax is a tax on the income of individuals, while sales tax is a tax on the sale of goods and services.
How does the tax system work for companies in Germany?
The tax system for companies in Germany is based on the taxation of profits. There are different types of taxes, such as corporate income tax and trade tax.
What are the consequences of tax evasion?
Tax evasion is a criminal offense and can result in fines, imprisonment and other legal consequences.
What regulations apply to revenues of foreign companies in Germany?
Income generated by foreign companies in Germany is subject to German tax regulations. Depending on the type of activity, there may be different taxation regimes.